.:Urology:.


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Summary
:Urology is the study of the male and female urinary tracts.Complete Definition
The urinary tract includes:

  1. Paired set of kidneys
  2. Two ureters
  3. Single urinary bladder
  4. Urethra

    1.The main function of the kidneys is to maintain correct amount of fluid in the body. This happens through a filtration system that has microscopic nephrons and inside those nephrons are tubules. The nephron is the part of the kidney that does most of the work of filtration. The kidney is responsible for:
    • Blood pressure/volume
    • Concentration of waste products
    • Concentration of electrolytes
    • pH of fluid plasma (acid/base balance)


    2.The ureters are two, narrow tubes and are lined with transitional epithelium.These ureters transport the filtrate (urea) that is made by the kidneys to the renal pelvis then to the ureters. The urea will finally drain into the urinary bladder

    3.The urinary bladder is also lined with transitional epithelium. This is where the urea is stored before excretion from the body. The bladder can hold as little as 50ml urine to 700-1000ml. This means that the bladder can distend and retract with out a problem.

    4.The urethra is the part of the body where the bladder and the outside come in contact. This where the excretion of urine happens.Men have three parts to their urethra it also plays a part in ejaculation of semen.A woman's urethra are short and extend from the bladder to the urethra opening.
    Howbladderworks.jpg






    Three parts to a man's urethra:
    • Prostatic urethra
    • Membranous urethra
    • Spongy urethra

      Who sings about pee...... These people do! : )

How does this apply to my career?
The study of the urinary system plays roll in my future job as a nurse for the fact that most UTIs happen in health care facilities. It is my responsibly to catheterize patients and try to get a clean catch specimen so that I can send the results to the lab to see just what is going on in the patients urine. The urine can tell the doctor if there is white blood cells, glucose, protein and pH of the urine. This will lead to diagnosis of such things is diabetes, urinary tract infections, kidney diseases along with many other serious complications. Also knowing the anatomy and where to catheterize someone would be helpful. It is also my responsibility to understand where urine come from and what color, odor and consistency it is suppose to be. For instance, at my job as a CNA I notice this resident had a horrible odor. So I took her to the bathroom and when I looked into the toilet I realized that her urine was extremely dark and had a creamy appearance. The nurse soon got a specimen and the resident was put on antibiotics and increased fluid intake and the UTI was cleared up.Urinalysis Report

Describe the renal processes of filtration, absorption, secretion and excretion.
Filtration: Filtration happens at a tiny level that we can't see with just the human eye. The bloos is filtered by nephrons in the kidneys. These nephrons are held in the renal coretex and are made up of tubules. Filtration begins when the blood leaves the interobular artery and enters the afferent arteriole. After that blood enters a glomerular capuse. This is where the larger particles such as cells and proteins are filtered out and are carried out in the efferent arteriole. The plasma that is left from the blood will pass through the glomerular capsule and enter the proximal convoluted tubule where it begins it journey to be turned into urea.f4-148.jpg

Reabsorption: Once the plasma has passed through the filtraion system of the renal process. The plasma enters the proximal convoluted tubule and travels down the Loop of Henle to the distal tubule. This is where reabsorption occurs. Reaborsorption is where the water and solutes of the plasma are removed and enter the connective tissue that surrounds the nephron.The action can be passive or active depending on what is being reabsorbed back into the blood.Some hormones that are involved in absorption is antidiuretic hormone and aldosterone.
  • ADH- stimulates passive water absorption
  • Aldosterone- stimulates active sodium resorption

Secretion: Secretion is the movement of materials from the peritubular capillaries to the renal tubular lumen. This movement of materials usually are caused by active transport

Excretion: The Final step is excretion. This is where the excessive toxins and the final product of the system occurs. The fluid that has now traveled through the the tubules and now enters the collecting duct where is empties into the renal pelvis and is transferred to the bladder by the means of ureters and out the urethra.

Why is it so important to maintain a proper electrolyte balance?
Its important because it regulates the blood concentrations of sodium, potassium, bicarbonate and phosphate. This stability help maintain the pH of the blood and homeostasis of the human body.


  • Example 1:Sodium regulates the blood pressure.
  • Example 2:Potassium maintains proper function on cardiac and skeletal muscle.

Just think of Gatorade.... Look at the sodium and potassium

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Fun Fact: About 440 Gallons of blood flow through your kidneys each day!


Thanks to:
http://mcb.berkeley.edu/courses/mcb135e/kidneyfluid.html
http://www.chemcases.com/gatorade/images/image44.gif
http://yucky.discovery.com/flash/body/pg000128.html
http://www.nsbri.org/HumanPhysSpace/focus4/ep-urine.html
Human physiology 11th edition -McGraw-Hill
Anatomy and Physiology 4th edition-Mcgraw-Hill

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